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Showing posts from August, 2018

MEO Class 1

Mepc 72 details and outcomes. IMO circular on stability. Ows not working CE. Residual buoyancy Reserve buoyancy 3rd eng joining ..action as CE? Derating of engine Reason for sudden start of aft vibration Management of change Cargo slop discharge criteria Difference between PSC code 17 and code 30. Difference between FOB and CIF Substantial Corrosion Engine Tuning Situational awareness and leadership for CE GZ curves salient points EEDI & EEOI

MEO Class 2 Orals

Safety Ism safety conventions Ism aspects Parametric rolling Duct keel structural diagram Risk Assessment How to assess risk and what procedure to reduce risk.. Electrician going to change foremast light wat safety and risks and wat you should do to reduce risks. Fire detection and alarm system requirements in a UMS class ship. Free Surface Effect, explain in detail, how to reduce ? Bilge keel, Margin plate? Panting arrangements. ISPS code levels and questions on levels of ISPS and what is difference between level 2 and other levels. Also a package has come on ship , will you receive it in level 2 ? How do u do risk assessment What is tpc and cross questions What is displacement , deadweight? Marpol annex 6 and certificates What is sheer strake, stealer plate , margin plate and differences between each type of strake. SMS wt it contains ? ‎Advantages of co2 system ? ‎annex 4 discharge criteria ?how u can say that the discharge through STP is not within limits ?

NOx Technical Code

MARPOL Annex VI requires all diesel engines installed after 1st January 2000, with a power output of more than 130 kw to be tested and issued with an Engine International Air Pollution Prevention (EIAPP) certificate and an approved NOx Technical File.  The approved Technical File provides details of the allowable engine components settings, operating values and allowable adjustments which ensure the engine will continue to operate within the acceptable NOx emission limits.  This EIAPP certificate and approved Technical File stays with the engine and remains valid for its marine life.  Periodic verification surveys are carried out by the classification to confirm the engine continues to operate within the on-board NOx emission limits. If any adjustment, part replacement and modifications are carried out, which influences NOx emission characteristics should be recorded chronologically in an engine’s record book of engine parameters. ID numbers of all such components used are

MEO Class 4 Orals

Safety Margin line Camber Rise of floor Bilge keel Rope guard Marpol Annex 6 full regulations Then cross questions upon Nox technical file, Equipments under nox Classification of Life Saving Appliances Name of all LSA life jacket regulations Chemical of DCP A 60 explain dead weight and lightweight difference between port state and flag state inspection? permeability of space? isps code? Difference between level 2 and 3? what is marpol?? definition of noxious liquid substances?? What is Solas Chapter 12 & Explain? Motor ME Exhaust valve working and construction and cross questions ME automatic start air valve working and construction and cross questions AE cylinder head cooling passages and flow, how it happens Compressor safeties Purpose of intercooler and it's location Bumping clearance and it's purpose Mounting on AE cylinder head Types of lubrication Explain boundary lubrication Explain hydrostatic lubrication Why vacuum condenser a

What is Ballast Water Management Plan?

In order to reduce the harmful effects on the marine environment that are spread through aquatic micro organisms transferred from one area to another through ballasting operations of the ship, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted a convention in order to control and manage ships ballast and sediments ion on 13th February 2004. Which entered  into force on 8 September 2017. Port state authorities from around the world implemented their own requirements for ballasting and de-ballasting operation for ships sailing in their terrestrial water. To simplify the requirement of the control of ballast water problem, a “ballast water management plan” was introduced which was to be used and implemented on board sailing vessels entering international waters. Contents of Ballast Water Management Plan: The ballast water management plan includes the following: International rules and regulations for different port state controls all over the world. Location of ports provi

Certification and Testing of Ballast Water Management Systems?

The manufacturer of the equipment should submit information regarding the design, construction, operation and functioning of the ballast water management system. This information should be the basis for a first evaluation of suitability by the Administration. The ballast water management system should be tested for type approval; the testing body performing the tests should have implemented appropriate quality control measures acceptable to the Administration. The electrical and electronic section of ballast water management systems should be subjected to the programme of environmental tests set out in Guidelines (G8) at a laboratory approved for the purpose by the Administration. Successful fulfilment of the requirements and procedures for type approval should lead to the issuance of a Type Approval Certificate by the Administration. When a type approved ballast water management system is installed on board, an installation survey should be carried out. It should be noted t

Ballast Water Management Regulations

 Standards for ballast water management:   ( Regulation D-1) ballast water exchange standard  and   (Regulation D-2) the more stringent ballast water performance standard . These requirements are being implemented in a phased manner and henceforth only the D-2 Regulations will be acceptable after the Convention comes into force on 8 September 2017. Ships performing ballast water exchange shall do so with an efficiency of 95 per cent volumetric exchange of ballast water and ships using a ballast water treatment system (BWTS) shall meet a performance standard ( Regulation D-2) based on agreed numbers of organisms per unit of volume. Regulation D-3 of the BWM Convention requires that ballast water management systems used to comply with the Convention must be approved by the Administration taking into account the Guidelines for approval of ballast water management systems (G8). Regulation D-3 also requires that ballast water management systems which make use of Active Subst

Ballast Water Treatment

Ballast water treatment is the process of treating ballast water in order to actively remove, kill and/or inactivate foreign organisms prior to discharge. Large vessels require thousands of tons of water to ensure stability and maneuverability, and the environmental impact can be considerable. These impacts result from the fact that the ballast water can contain hundreds of different invasive species, many of which can have serious ecological, economic and public health effects if transferred to regions where they are not native. The recognition of these effects has made ballast management increasingly important for protection of the marine environment. There are two generic types of process technology used in ballast water treatment: solid-liquid separation and  disinfection Separation processes:   Solid-liquid separation is simply the separation of suspended solid material, including the larger suspended micro-organisms, from the ballast water, either by sediment

Requirements of the Ballast Water Management Convention

All international going ships under the Convention must implement a ‘Ballast water management plan’ that enables the ship to manage their ballast water and sediment discharge to a certain standard. The plan is designed to meet the requirements for compliance with the Convention and the G4 Guidelines produced by the IMO. It includes standard operational guidance, planning and management, as well as additional details including sampling points and systems.  Additionally, all ships over 400GT must also carry a ballast water record book that details such requirements as the filling and discharge of each tank, according to time, date, location and the treatment applied to the water. Ships that comply with the Convention will receive and are duly required to carry an international ballast water management certificate. To receive a certificate, a ship will have to supply the necessary documentation showing compliance with the Convention and a survey will be carried out onboa


In general, a ship is regarded as substandard if the hull, machinery, equipment or operational safety, is substantially below the standards required by the applicable conventions or if the crew is not in conformance with the safe manning document, owing to, inter alia: 1. the absence of principal equipment or arrangement required by        the conventions; 2. non-compliance of equipment or arrangement with relevant              specifications of the conventions; 3. substantial deterioration of the ship or its equipment, for                  example, because of poor maintenance; 4. insufficiency of operational proficiency, or unfamiliarity of              essential operational procedures by the crew; and 5. insufficiency of manning or insufficiency of certification of              seafarers. If these evident factors as a whole or individually make the ship unseaworthy and put at risk the ship or the life of persons on board or present an unreasonable threat of harm to the mari

Ballast Water Management Convention

The BWM Convention will enter into force on 8 September 2017. The adoption of all the required 16 Guidelines for the uniform implementation of the BWM Convention and the robust approval and certification procedure of modern ballast water treatment technologies have removed the major barriers to the ratification of the instrument and a number of additional countries have indicated their intention to accede to this Convention in the near future. The following Guidelines relating to the uniform implementation of the BWM Convention have been developed and adopted since MEPC 53: Guidelines for sediment reception facilities (G1) (resolution MEPC.152(55)); Guidelines for ballast water sampling (G2) (resolution MEPC.173(58)); Guidelines for ballast water management equivalent compliance (G3) (resolution MEPC.123(53)); Guidelines for ballast water management and development of ballast water management plans (G4) (resolution MEPC.127(53)); Guidelines for ballast water reception fa

What are “Clear Grounds” for an expanded PSC inspection ?

When a PSCO inspects a foreign ship which is required to hold a convention certificate, and which is in a port or an offshore terminal under the jurisdiction of the port State, any such inspection should be limited to verifying that there are on board valid certificates and other relevant documentation and the PSCO forming an impression of the overall condition of the ship, its equipment and its crew, unless there are " clear grounds " for believing that the condition of the ship or its equipment does not correspond substantially with the particulars of the certificates. " Clear grounds " to conduct a more detailed inspection: 1. the absence of principal equipment or arrangements required by      the applicable conventions; 2. evidence from a review of the ship's certificates that a certificate      or certificates are clearly invalid; 3. evidence that documentation required by the applicable                    conventions is not on board, incomplete, not

Ballast Water Management

Since the introduction of steel-hulled  vessels ,water has been used as ballast  to stabilize, appropriate stress distribution  of the hull and for propeller immersion of  vessels at sea. Ballast water is pumped in  to the vessel to maintain safe operating  conditions throughout a voyage.  While ballast water is essential  for safe and efficient modern shipping  operations, it poses serious ecological,  economic and health problems due  to the multitude of marine species inadvertently carried in ships’ ballast  water. These include bacteria, microbes,  small invertebrates, eggs, cysts and  larvae of various species. When Ballast  water taken in from one region or area is pumped out in another part of the world , the transferred species may survive to  establish a reproductive population in the  host environment, becoming invasive, out competing  native species and multiplying  into pest proportions. Ballast Water Management on ships  is required to prevent this ecological  d

What is Flag State ? Authority and responsibility of the flag State?

The Flag State of a ship is the State under whose laws the vessel is registered or licensed. Flag State denotes the government whose flag the ship is entitled to fly. Normally a vessel will usually bear the flag of the country with which she has closest connections. Although other considerations such as commercial interestor in some cases the terms of a ship’s chartering  government contracts could determine the flag to be flown by a vessel. The Flag state has the authority and the  responsibility to enforce international  maritime regulations over vessels  registered under its flag, including  those relating to inspection, certification  and issuance of safety and pollution  prevention documents Flag States also have the responsibility  of implementing and enforcing rules  adopted by other inter governmental  bodies, including International Labour  Organization ( ILO)and International oil  pollution compensation (IOPC)Fund. The IOPC fund ensures

What are the procedures for rectification of deficiencies and release?

1. The PSCO should endeavour to secure the rectification of all deficiencies detected. 2. In the case of deficiencies which are clearly hazardous to safety or the environment, the PSCO should ensure that the hazard is removed before the ship is allowed to proceed to sea. For this purpose, appropriate action should be taken, which may include detention or a formal prohibition of a ship to continue an operation due to established deficiencies which, individually or together, would render the continued operation hazardous. 3. Where deficiencies which caused a detention and cannot be remedied in the port of inspection, the port State Authority may allow the ship concerned to proceed to the nearest appropriate repair yard available, as chosen by the master and agreed to by that authority, provided that the conditions agreed between the port State Authority and the flag State are compl

How the deficiencies found at the time of inspection are dealt with?

Courses of action a PSC officer may impose on a ship with deficiencies are: 1. Deficiencies can be rectified within 14 days for minor                      infractions. 2. Under specific conditions, deficiencies can be rectified when the      ship arrives at the next port. 3. Deficiencies must be rectified before the ship can depart the port. 4. Detention of the ship occurs. The main criteria for detention is that the ship is deemed unsafe to proceed sea and the deficiencies on the ship are considered serious by the inspector.These deficiencies must be rectified before the ship may sail again. Generally the major deficiencies are: 1. Certification of the crew. 2. Safety. 3. Maritime Security. 4. Maritime pollution and Environment. 5. Working and living conditions. 6. Operational. 7. Management.

Scope of Inspection by PSC officers?

Port state control aims, through a system of harmonized inspection procedures, to ensure compliance with international regulations and target sub-standard ships with the main objective being their eventual elimination. Inspections consist of at least a visit on board a ship in order to check the validity of the certificates and documents and also to satisfy that the crew and the overall condition of the ship, its equipment, machinery spaces and accommodation and hygienic condition on board, meet the provision of the relevant Conventions. Also, whenever there are clear grounds for believing that the condition of a ship or its equipment or crew or the ship’s safety management system does not substantially meet the requirements of relevant Conventions a more detailed inspection is carried out. Its exercise aims at correcting noncompliance or ineffective flag State enforcement of IMO regulations by ships Courses of action a PSC officer may impose on a ship with deficiencies are:

What is Port State Control ?

Port State Control is the inspection foreign flag ships in national ports to verify that the condition of the ship and its equipment comply with the requirements of international regulations and that the ship is manned and operated in compliance with these rules.The inspection is done by officers representing the national Port State Authority or Maritime Administration in each country.

Purpose of Boiler Water Tests

Purpose of boiler water treatment Prevent corrosion of boiler tubes and shell Prevent scale formation and hence maintain heat transfer rates. Control sludge formation within the boiler. Control foaming and priming. Prevent entry of foreign matter, oil etc. into the boiler via feed system Extend boiler survey to the maximum allowed. FOLLOWING TESTS ARE CARRIED OUT:- Boiler water tests are therefore done to ensure that the chemical levels are maintained as required. Chlorides : This is a measure of presence of Chlorides, usually an indication of contamination of Boiler water with sea water.( Sodium Chloride / Calcium or Magnesium Chloride ) . This results in increased scale formation, acidity and boiler priming.  Normal levels: Chlorides < 300 ppm.   What to do if chloride content increases beyond normal value.? Check for leakages of SW into the system, mainly from atmospheric condenser leak and rectify any leaks found. Blowdown at regular and frequent inter

Difference between Synthetic & Mineral lube oil?

Synthetic Lube Oil Mineral Lube Oil Synthetic oils can be a amalgamation of man-made oil + mineral oil or fully man made oil. Mineral oil is basically a derivative of petroleum products which is then refined to its usable form.  Expensive as compared to mineral oil. Less expensive Can withstand high temperatures. Can’t withstand high temperature They are the best, they provide highest level of protection for engine components. They provide the least protection to engine components. Can withstand high temperature & Lasts much longer than mineral oil. Can’t withstand high temperature Synthetic oils do not allow engine components to wear as much as mineral oil thus they are not suitable during break in periods. Suitable for machinery having break in periods. Since it allows engine components to wear evenly