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Showing posts from February, 2020

Treaty Vs Convention Vs Protocol

Treaty: A treaty is a written international agreement between two states (a bilateral  treaty) or between a number of states (a multilateral treaty), which is binding  in international law. In relation to shipping matters, the chief international treaty-making bodies  are an internationally accepted organization such as the United Nations or  one of its agencies, such as IMO, ILO, WHO or ITU. A treaty normally enters into force in accordance with criteria incorporated  into the treaty itself, e.g. 1 year after a stipulated number of states have  acceded to it (by signature of a government representative). A treaty signed by a state government generally has no effect in the national  law of the state until there has been an act of ratification or accession and the  treaty has been incorporated by statute into the national law of the state. Conventions: Means coming together for a common objective A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standar

Bill Of Lading

1. The bill lading is the declaration of the master of the vessel by which he acknowledges that he received the goods on board of his ship and assures that he will carry the goods to the place of destination for delivery, in the same condition as he received them against handing of the original bill of lading. 2. The definition of a bill of lading given in the ―HAMBURG RULES is the following. BILL OF LADING means a document which evidence a contract of carriage by sea and the taking over of loading of the goods by the carrier, and by which the carrier undertakes to deliver the goods against surrender of the document. 3. A provision in the document that the goods are to be delivered to the order of a named person, or to order or o bearer, constitutes such an undertaking. 4. The bill of lading serves as a a) A receipt of the goods by the ship-owner acknowledging that the goods of the stated species, quantity and conditions are shipped to a stated destination in a certain ship o

General Average VS Particular Average

General Average: 1. General average is an ancient form of spreading the risk of sea transport and existed long before marine insurance. General average means general loss‘, as opposed to a particular loss under marine insurance. 2. It is defined in the rules of YORK-ANTWERP rule as ― There is a general average act when and only when any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure is intentionally and reasonably made or incurred for the common safety for their purpose of preserving from peril, the property involved in a common maritime adventure. 3. The general average loss are shared by all parties to the common maritime adventure, each parties contributing proportions depend on his share of total value saved. The parties involved in the common maritime adventure are Shipowner Each consignee The recipient of the freight (Shipowner/ Charterer) When any equipment is installed on the vessel by a third party, he also a party 4. The five major components of a general average loss is th

Lloyd's Open Form

1. LOF provides a regime for determining the amount of remuneration to be awarded to salvors for their services in saving property at sea and minimizing or preventing damage to the environment. Originating from the late 1800s, it is probably the most widely used international salvage agreement of its kind in the world today. 2. It is a standard legal document for a proposed salvage operation. 3. It should be used when a marine environment is at risk and the master has insufficient time to request the owner to arrange salvage services on a pre-agreed rate of sum. 4. It is a single sheet(2 pages) document in a simple format(LOF 2000 form). 5. LOF 2000 form contains numbered boxes as below Name of the salvage contractors property to be salved (vessel name) agreed place of safety agreed currency date of agreement place of agreement Is SCOPIC clause is incorporated-- yes/no name and signature of contractor name and signature of master / on behalf of property

Describe the procedure to be followed for timely release of a vessel detained for serious structural deficiencies under PSC?

Procedures for Rectification of Deficiencies and Release: It is the responsibility of the owner / Manager to inform the flag state and  class about deficiency and detention. Port state will normally notify the flag state of any detention. Flag state or a classification society acting on its behalf may attend the ship  to help resolve the problem, in this case, PSCO might agree to the remedial action proposed by the surveyor and allow him to oversee the repairs. The master and/or the shipowner would need to authorize the repair work  to be carried out in the presence of the surveyor. There will be associated costs to cover port state inspection cost will of  course also be charged to the ship detention orders are lifted once all payment has been received in full. When deficiencies which caused a detention cannot be remedied in the port  of inspection, the ship concerned may be authorized to proceed to the nearest appropriate repair yard available, as chosen by the master an

Explain detainable deficiency with reference to a PSC inspection?

Detainable deficiency: A deficiency that presents an immediate threat to the ship, its personnel or the  environment, which renders the ship unsafe to proceed to sea. A ship can expect to be detained when in the professional judgment of a PSCO  i.e he considered unsafe to allow a ship to proceed to sea before the deficiencies  identified have been rectified. EXAMPLES OF DETAINABLE DEFICIENCIES: Under SOLAS Failure of main propulsion, electrical, pumping, and steering Excessive oil leakage in E/R, lagging insulation contaminated by oil Absence non-compliance or poor condition of LSA equipment, fire dampers, ventilation dampers, quick closing valves, etc Absence, non-compliance of poor condition of navigational lights, shapes and sounds signals Absence of corrected charts and publications Absence or failure of mandatory navigational systems and equipment Absence or failure of radio communications systems Number, composition or certification of the crew not corresponding t

How will you prepare your ship for a renewal survey of IAPPC (International Air Pollution Prevention Certificate)? Explain with specific emphasis on the records and documents to be maintained?

MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI Regulations for the prevention of Air Pollution from ships applies to all ships greater than or equal to 400 gross tonnages and to have an IAPP ( For renewal survey of IAPP certificate the following things as per Annex VI should be considered. Prior to issuance of certificate the flag state or will need to confirm compliance with the applicable regulations contained within the annex. The certificate continuity validity will require annual, intermediate and renewal surveys to be satisfactorily carried out. For renewal of IAPP certificate preparation will lie in the fact that the vessel is complying with the regulations of annex VI. So, preparation regarding different regulations under Annex VI will be:- Regulation 12:- Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) This regulation does not apply to permanently sealed equipment where there is  no refrigerant charging connection. Subject to this regulation any deliberate  emission of ODS shall be prohibited. Also, after 1

Brushless Marine Alternator

The working principle of an alternator is very simple. it's just like a basic principle of DC generator. It also depends upon Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction which says the current is induced in the conductor inside a magnetic field when there is a relative motion between that conductor and the magnetic field in other words when the conductor cuts magnetic field the emf will be induced. In a loop of conductor, is rotated in a magnetic field of opposite polarity, the EMF can be measured by a slip rings. Here we need a slip ring and a carbon brush assembly to pick up the power of the rotating parts and hence it needs contact maintenance and the voltage cannot be controlled. we can avoid slip ring by keeping the conductor stationary and rotating the magnet and get the same effect with slip ring assembly. The brushless self-excited alternator is an advanced version of alternator, where the voltage can be controlled by adjusting the field current in the excited s

Air Resistance

In calm weather, air resistance is, in principle, proportional to the square of the ship’s speed and proportional to the cross-sectional area of the ship above the waterline. Air resistance normally represents about 2% of the total resistance. For container ships in head wind, the air resistance can be as much as 10%. The air resistance can, similar to the foregoing resistances, be expressed as R🇦 = C🇦 × K,  but is sometimes based on 90% of the dynamic pressure of air with a speed of V, i.e.: R🇦 = 0.90 × ½ × ρ(air) × V 2 × A(air) where ρ(air)air is the density of the air, and A(air) is the cross-sectional area of the vessel above the water.

Residual Resistance

Residual resistance R🇷 comprises wave resistance and eddy resistance. Wave resistance refers to the energy loss caused by waves created by the vessel during its propulsion through the water, while eddy resistance refers to the loss caused by flow separation which creates eddies, particularly at the aft end of the ship. Wave resistance at low speeds is proportional to the square of the speed, but increases much faster at higher speeds. In principle, this means that a speed barrier is imposed, so that a further increase of the ship’s propulsion power will not result in a higher speed as all the power will be converted into wave energy. The residual resistance normally represents 8-25% of the total resistance for low-speed ships and up to 40-60% for high-speed ships. Incidentally, shallow waters can also have a great influence on the residual resistance, as the displaced water under the ship will have greater difficulty in moving aftwards. The residual resistance is found a

Frictional Resistance

The frictional resistance R🇫 of the hull depends on the size of the hull’s wetted area AS, and on the specific frictional resistance coefficient CF. The friction increases with fouling of the hull, i.e. by the growth of, i.a. algae, seagrass, and barnacles. An attempt to avoid fouling is made by the use of antifouling hull paints to prevent the hull from becoming “longhaired”, i.e. these paints reduce the possibility of the hull becoming fouled by living organisms. The paints containing TBT (tributyltin) as their principal biocide, which is very toxic, have dominated the market for decades, but the IMO ban of TBT for new applications from 1 January 2003, and a full ban from 1 January 2008, may involve the use of new (and maybe not as effective) alternatives, probably copper-based antifouling paints. When the ship is propelled through the water, the frictional resistance increases at a rate that is virtually equal to the square of the vessel’s speed. Frictional resistance rep

Ship Resistance

To move a ship, it is first necessary to overcome resistance, i.e. the force working against its propulsion. The calculation of this resistance, R plays a significant role in the selection of the correct propeller and in the subsequent choice of main engine. A ship’s resistance is particularly influenced by its speed, displacement, and hull form. The total resistance Rт consists of many source resistances R which can be divided into three main groups: 1) Frictional resistance 2) Residual resistance 3) Air resistance The influence of frictional and residual resistances depends on how much of the hull is below the waterline, while the influence of air resistance depends on how much of the ship is above the waterline. In view of this, air resistance will have a certain effect on container ships which carry a large number of containers on the deck. Water with a speed of V and a density of ρ has a dynamic pressure of: ½ ×   ρ × V 2 (Bernoulli’s law) Thus, if water is being c

Propeller Types

Propellers may be divided into the following two main groups:  Fixed pitch propeller (FP propeller)  Controllable pitch propeller (CP propeller) Propellers of the FP type are cast in one block and normally made of a copper alloy. The position of the blades, and thereby the propeller pitch, is once and for all fixed, with a given pitch that can not be changed in operation. This means that when operating in, for example, heavy weather conditions, the propeller performance curves, i.e. the combination of power and speed (r/min) points, will change according to the physical laws, and the actual propeller curve cannot be changed by the crew. Most ships that do not need particularly good maneuverability are equipped with an FP propeller.  Propellers of the CP type have a relatively larger hub compared with the FP propellers because the hub has to have space for a hydraulically activated mechanism for control of the pitch (angle) of the blades. The CP propeller is relatively e