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Showing posts from December, 2018

Dry Docking - Part I

It is mandatory to dry dock a ship on a regular basis in accordance with cargo ship safety construction rules based on the 1974 SOLAS regulations. The rules state that cargo ships have to be drydocked twice in an interval of five years with the interval of five years with the interval between consecutive dry dockings being not less than two years and not more than three years. The classification societies have interpreted this rule by providing a regular interval of thirty months with a window period of + or - six months from the anniversary date so as to suit this requirement. The classification society's rule for periodical surveys has now been amended to operate in accordance with the harmonization of surveys so the surveys and repairs are carried out without hindrance to the operation of the ships. Accordingly, in a five-year cycle of a survey, the two dry dockings are programmed as the first drydocking during the intermediate survey layup and second drydocking during the

What is Power Factor and Why is it Important?

Power factor is the ratio between the KW(Kilo-Watts) and the KVA(Kilo-Volt Amperes) drawn by an electrical load where the KW is the actual load power and the KVA is the apparent load power.  It is a measure of how effectively the current is being converted into useful work output and more particularly is a good indicator of the effect of the load current on the efficiency of the supply system.  Power Factor = True Power/Apparent Power All current flow will cause losses in the supply and distribution system. A load with a power factor of 1.0 results in the most efficient loading of the supply and a load with a power factor of 0.5 will result in much higher losses in the supply system.  Power Factor Formula: 1). The Cosine of angle between Current and Voltage is called Power Factor. P = VI Cosθ                OR Cosθ = P / V I             OR Cosθ = kW / kVA        OR Cosθ = True Power/ Apparent Power Where, P = Power in Watts V = Voltages in Volts I = Current in Ampe

Tonnes per Centimetre Immersion(TPC)

The tonne per centimetre (TPC) of a ship at any given draught is the mass required to increase the mean draught by 1cm. If the vessel is loading in salt water and the freeboard checked it may be found that more cargo can be loaded to immerse the ship another few centimetres is useful to convert this to tonnes. This is the TPC.  TPC can be calculated by the formula: TPC=A x ρ/100 Where    A = area of water plane at a certain draught                ρ = density of water in which the ship floats The TPC varies with the draught and with the water density. Changes in draught cause a change in displacement and the TPC assists in calculating the change.

What is Oil Record Book (ORB) & who is required to make the entries in oil record book. What all entries you write in Oil Record Book?

When oil handling work is carried out, the Master, Chief Officer and Chief Engineer shall enter the facts in the Oil Record Book and sign the same according to below procedures. Every oil tanker of 150 gross tonnage and above and every ship of 400 gross tonnage and above other than an oil tanker shall be provided with an Oil Record Book Part I (Machinery Space Operations). Keeping Oil Record Book: The Master shall keep onboard the following Oil Record Books require by laws and regulations Oil Record Book for tankers (cargo and ballast operations) and Oil Record Book for all ships (machinery space operations). Persons Who Will Sign Entries In Oil Record Book: For oil tankers chief officer and others ships chief engineer Each completed page shall be countersigned by the Master Or the officer in charge of the operation must be the one who signs the entry and it must be done without delay upon completion of the operation, This does not automatically mean the Chie

Reserve Buoyancy & Its Importance?

Reserve buoyancy is the potential buoyancy  of the ship and depends upon the intact and watertight volume above the waterline. When the mass is added to the ship or buoyancy  is lost due to bilging, the reserve buoyancy is converted to buoyancy by increasing the draught.  If the buoyancy exceeds the reverse buoyancy  the vessel will sink. Importance of Reserve Buoyancy: Reserve buoyancy is important for the vessel's safe operation  at sea. Think about  the following example. You have set off for a day's fishing in a small fishing boat. You set off yourself with a small amount  of gear from the moorings.  The boat is lower in water now and doesn't get up on the plane quite so easily. Nevertheless you  head out and have a good fishing day, so good that the boat is filled with fish. On the way back you have to travel very slowly because the boat is very low in water now and you are worried about seas being shipped over the side. What has happened is that you

Difference between Immersion suit & Thermal protective aid?

Thermal Protective Aid: TPA is an aluminized polyethene suit with heat sealed seams that protects from a temperature range of -30 degree to + 20 degrees and reduces both convective and evaporative heat loss from the wearer's body. Its international orange colour ensures that the user is highly visible in all weather conditions. The aid should not be used in water and should be discarded for swimming. Immersion Suit: Immersion suit can significantly improve survival time in cold water. It is a special type of waterproof dry suit that protects a person from hypothermia. It helps to float on water. It is well known that a person chances of survival when immersed in water are improved only by the ability to remain dry and maintain the body temperature at a comfortable level. It was designed so that the immersion suit to protect you in situations where the danger of hypothermia is great, thereby greatly increasing your chances of survival.

You are on the watch suddenly you noticed an electrical fire, what all action you take and which type of fire extinguisher you used?

Action you take in case of electrical fire: Whenever you see fire even if you think the fire is small and you can contain it yourself, it's better to be safe and has the professional on their way, Be sure to tell them it's an electrical fire so they can be prepared by raising the alarm. Muster all the crew at the muster station and proceed with your duty. Shut off the main breaker to isolate the system which comes under fire, if possible. Be sure your hands are not wet and the fire is not close to the breaker box before attempting this step. Use a class-C or multi-purpose ABC fire extinguisher should be clearly marked not, but if it's not and you are not sure what kind it is, don't use it. Throw a sodium bicarbonate such as baking soda on the fire to smother it. If a fire extinguisher is not available and the fire is small, dousing it with enough baking soda can put it out. NOTE: During the time of fire make sure you have the proper plan and prope

What is the Procedure of Starting the Dead ship?

Dead Ship  Starting Procedures: Use emergency  air compressor to build up pressure. Once emergency sir reservoir  reach 12 kgf/cm2, prepare to start generator #1 on DO. Set the line for FO system, FW system and SW cooling system. Start generator #1 and close the circuit breaker. Start generator cooling SW pump. Start main air compressor and fill up the main reservoir. Start generator #2 & synchronize with generator #1. Start Aux. boiler  & commence with fuel tank to change it over to HFO. Start purifier and fill up the FO service tank. Line up FO, LO, FW and SW cooling system for main engine. Start main LO pump and jack up main engine for 30 mins. Start main engine and check all parameters. Once confirm smooth running, gradually increase rpm until normal speed is attained. Again, check the following FO booster pump ME cooling FW pump Boiler circulating pump Main cooling SW pump Other parameters.