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Showing posts from 2018

Dry Docking - Part I

It is mandatory to dry dock a ship on a regular basis in accordance with cargo ship safety construction rules based on the 1974 SOLAS regulations. The rules state that cargo ships have to be drydocked twice in an interval of five years with the interval of five years with the interval between consecutive dry dockings being not less than two years and not more than three years. The classification societies have interpreted this rule by providing a regular interval of thirty months with a window period of + or - six months from the anniversary date so as to suit this requirement. The classification society's rule for periodical surveys has now been amended to operate in accordance with the harmonization of surveys so the surveys and repairs are carried out without hindrance to the operation of the ships. Accordingly, in a five-year cycle of a survey, the two dry dockings are programmed as the first drydocking during the intermediate survey layup and second drydocking during the

What is Power Factor and Why is it Important?

Power factor is the ratio between the KW(Kilo-Watts) and the KVA(Kilo-Volt Amperes) drawn by an electrical load where the KW is the actual load power and the KVA is the apparent load power.  It is a measure of how effectively the current is being converted into useful work output and more particularly is a good indicator of the effect of the load current on the efficiency of the supply system.  Power Factor = True Power/Apparent Power All current flow will cause losses in the supply and distribution system. A load with a power factor of 1.0 results in the most efficient loading of the supply and a load with a power factor of 0.5 will result in much higher losses in the supply system.  Power Factor Formula: 1). The Cosine of angle between Current and Voltage is called Power Factor. P = VI Cosθ                OR Cosθ = P / V I             OR Cosθ = kW / kVA        OR Cosθ = True Power/ Apparent Power Where, P = Power in Watts V = Voltages in Volts I = Current in Ampe

Tonnes per Centimetre Immersion(TPC)

The tonne per centimetre (TPC) of a ship at any given draught is the mass required to increase the mean draught by 1cm. If the vessel is loading in salt water and the freeboard checked it may be found that more cargo can be loaded to immerse the ship another few centimetres is useful to convert this to tonnes. This is the TPC.  TPC can be calculated by the formula: TPC=A x ρ/100 Where    A = area of water plane at a certain draught                ρ = density of water in which the ship floats The TPC varies with the draught and with the water density. Changes in draught cause a change in displacement and the TPC assists in calculating the change.

What is Oil Record Book (ORB) & who is required to make the entries in oil record book. What all entries you write in Oil Record Book?

When oil handling work is carried out, the Master, Chief Officer and Chief Engineer shall enter the facts in the Oil Record Book and sign the same according to below procedures. Every oil tanker of 150 gross tonnage and above and every ship of 400 gross tonnage and above other than an oil tanker shall be provided with an Oil Record Book Part I (Machinery Space Operations). Keeping Oil Record Book: The Master shall keep onboard the following Oil Record Books require by laws and regulations Oil Record Book for tankers (cargo and ballast operations) and Oil Record Book for all ships (machinery space operations). Persons Who Will Sign Entries In Oil Record Book: For oil tankers chief officer and others ships chief engineer Each completed page shall be countersigned by the Master Or the officer in charge of the operation must be the one who signs the entry and it must be done without delay upon completion of the operation, This does not automatically mean the Chie

Reserve Buoyancy & Its Importance?

Reserve buoyancy is the potential buoyancy  of the ship and depends upon the intact and watertight volume above the waterline. When the mass is added to the ship or buoyancy  is lost due to bilging, the reserve buoyancy is converted to buoyancy by increasing the draught.  If the buoyancy exceeds the reverse buoyancy  the vessel will sink. Importance of Reserve Buoyancy: Reserve buoyancy is important for the vessel's safe operation  at sea. Think about  the following example. You have set off for a day's fishing in a small fishing boat. You set off yourself with a small amount  of gear from the moorings.  The boat is lower in water now and doesn't get up on the plane quite so easily. Nevertheless you  head out and have a good fishing day, so good that the boat is filled with fish. On the way back you have to travel very slowly because the boat is very low in water now and you are worried about seas being shipped over the side. What has happened is that you

Difference between Immersion suit & Thermal protective aid?

Thermal Protective Aid: TPA is an aluminized polyethene suit with heat sealed seams that protects from a temperature range of -30 degree to + 20 degrees and reduces both convective and evaporative heat loss from the wearer's body. Its international orange colour ensures that the user is highly visible in all weather conditions. The aid should not be used in water and should be discarded for swimming. Immersion Suit: Immersion suit can significantly improve survival time in cold water. It is a special type of waterproof dry suit that protects a person from hypothermia. It helps to float on water. It is well known that a person chances of survival when immersed in water are improved only by the ability to remain dry and maintain the body temperature at a comfortable level. It was designed so that the immersion suit to protect you in situations where the danger of hypothermia is great, thereby greatly increasing your chances of survival.

You are on the watch suddenly you noticed an electrical fire, what all action you take and which type of fire extinguisher you used?

Action you take in case of electrical fire: Whenever you see fire even if you think the fire is small and you can contain it yourself, it's better to be safe and has the professional on their way, Be sure to tell them it's an electrical fire so they can be prepared by raising the alarm. Muster all the crew at the muster station and proceed with your duty. Shut off the main breaker to isolate the system which comes under fire, if possible. Be sure your hands are not wet and the fire is not close to the breaker box before attempting this step. Use a class-C or multi-purpose ABC fire extinguisher should be clearly marked not, but if it's not and you are not sure what kind it is, don't use it. Throw a sodium bicarbonate such as baking soda on the fire to smother it. If a fire extinguisher is not available and the fire is small, dousing it with enough baking soda can put it out. NOTE: During the time of fire make sure you have the proper plan and prope

What is the Procedure of Starting the Dead ship?

Dead Ship  Starting Procedures: Use emergency  air compressor to build up pressure. Once emergency sir reservoir  reach 12 kgf/cm2, prepare to start generator #1 on DO. Set the line for FO system, FW system and SW cooling system. Start generator #1 and close the circuit breaker. Start generator cooling SW pump. Start main air compressor and fill up the main reservoir. Start generator #2 & synchronize with generator #1. Start Aux. boiler  & commence with fuel tank to change it over to HFO. Start purifier and fill up the FO service tank. Line up FO, LO, FW and SW cooling system for main engine. Start main LO pump and jack up main engine for 30 mins. Start main engine and check all parameters. Once confirm smooth running, gradually increase rpm until normal speed is attained. Again, check the following FO booster pump ME cooling FW pump Boiler circulating pump Main cooling SW pump Other parameters.

If your Sewage Treatment Plant blower stop working then your Sewage Treatment Plant can work without any problem?

This question is generally asked to test your basic knowledge about the operation of machinery as we all know that if onboard STP is of anaerobic type then the microorganism break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen, but if it is of aerobic type then definitely STP will not work because Aerobic digestion is a bacterial process occurring in the presence of oxygen. If, however, there is insufficient oxygen for these bacteria then alternative bacteria dominate. These Anaerobic Bacteria produce Hydrogen Sulphide, Methane and Ammonia. These gasses are either highly toxic or flammable or both. In particular, Hydrogen Sulphide is toxic to humans in concentrations down to 10ppm and its flammable vapours are heavier than air so may build up in lethal pockets in enclosed spaces. So, if the blower stops working the aerobic bacteria may die and it will take a longer time to regenerate.

How will you clean the Sewage Treatment Plant on-board?

During the time of orals, everyone can able to tell the method but examiner wants to listen to what safety precautions you will take, that was important to mention before starting with the cleaning process. One of the biggest problem associated with the sewage treatment plant is gas hazards. Gas hazard in the sewage treatment plant are those due to inflammable and poisonous gases may be derived from three general sources. Low volatile liquids which enter as the part of sewage, or the product of fermentation or digestion of sewage. The inflammable or poisonous gases usually found in treatment plants are methane, carbon dioxide and possibly carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulphide if inhale in the cleaning process may cause death.

Marine Sewage Treatment Plant

The basic principle of working of a biological treatment  plant is decomposition of the raw sewage. This process is done by aerating the sewage chamber with fresh air. The aerobic bacteria survive on this fresh air and decompose the raw sewage which is dispose off in the sea. Air is a very important criteria in the functioning  of the biological sewage plant because if air is not present, it will lead to growth of anaerobic  bacteria which produces toxic gases that are hazardous to health. Also after decomposition  of the sewage with anaerobic bacteria, a dark black liquid causes discoloration of water which is not accepted  for discharging. Thus in a biological sewage treatment plant the main aim is to maintain the flow of fresh air. Division of processes: The biological sewage  plant is divides into three chambers Aeration Chamber Settling tank Chlorination and Collection tank Aeration Chamber: This chamber is fed with raw sewage which has been grinded to form smal

What is the use of by-pass valve in SCBA?

In any case, if the face shield of SCBA is leaking in the presence of poisonous gas. It might penetrate through the mask and made the person unconscious when we open the by-pass valve it will provide oxygen continuously and will maintain a positive pressure inside the face mask to prevent the entry of poisonous gas.

Why an extra Life raft provided in forward of the ship?

According to SOLAS chapter 3, section 3 of regulation 31 in cargo ships when the horizontal distance from the extreme end of the stem or stern of the ship to the nearest end of the closest survival craft is more than 100m shall carry, in addition to the normal liferaft requirements a liferaft stowed as far as forward or aft as is reasonable and practicable. Such liferaft or liferafts may be securely fastened so as to permit manual release.

MEO Class 4

Safety: Solas chapter 12 full Annex 6 full, mainly Voc part Dynamic stability, Gz curve Req for emg towing oil tanker shell exp plan Stealer plate FSS code full Swash bulkhead location, purpose Certificate Carried related to solas chapter 9 Motor: AE lo contamination all possible causes Purifier pairing disc, Lubrication, water transducer Water tube boiler entire construction, with nomenclature Fwg less vacuum reasons & effects, high salinity reasons ME unit overhaul, hydraulic jack All about Threads Turbocharger, purpose of diffuser, drawing Self and central priming arrangement of pumps Vacuum condenser safeties, why VC Copt, how water level maintained in VC types of gate valve if gate valve struck inside, what will happen ,what will be ur action Air starting valve TIMING diagram for single unit counter weights in crankshaft (in ME & AE - how it is fitted) types of fuel injection  bilge valve, diff between sdnr nd slv shaft earthing , what to

MEO Class 2

Safety: IEEC certificate under which annexure and chapter, validity Required eedi, attained eedi with formula MLC Certificate and port state inspection why came in force in2013, not 2006 .no of article in it. Dynamic test of lifeboat. Maintenance of centrifugal brake as 2nd engineer, no of brake. NOx technical file content.  Maintenance of portable fire extinguishers as per DG shipping. In the container ship, there are some box tell me the name of all. Sopep , what information , why provided , who approves??? why mild steel used for ship building , carbon %, difference between strength & hardness Instantaneous rate of discharge Precaution during inclining experiment. Annexe 3 Reception facilities Propeller pitch ratio. Centre of floatation. Safeties for bulk carrier About high density cargo loading What are all the rules regarding triangle marking on bulkcarrier loading high density cargo...wheater applicable to all types of bulk carrier loading high density

MEO Class 4

Safety: Marpol annex What is dead weight ? What is displacement? Freeboard and why is it given? Reason for different freeboard in tanker and bulk carrier. MARPOL 73/78 all annexes in brief. Annex 6 in detail. With certification. Difference between IAPP and EEDI. Bilge keel and how it is welded, why? Types of plate Types of rudder Sprouling hose Co2 room regulations Fixed fire fighting system Co2 cylinder calculation Cylinder classification Bilge discharge criteria Sewage discharge,criteria and about bod Anchor chain bitter end purpose Ism objectives Bulwark Isps level 3 Components of annex 6 Hypermist system and checks carried out All Statutory certificates carried by ship. Difference between type 1 2 3 tanker.  Safeties in Life boat Emergency generator regulations. All of them. Explain oil discharge criteria Solas chapter 12 explain Mlc all tittles Hypermist draw and explain Statical stability Draw and explain ship righting lever and trigonometry cal

MEO Class 4

Safety: IG safeties gave explanation of each and every alarm with value and what things will stop or open  Pump room safeties gave explanation how you enter  Collision bulkhead In collision bulkhead gave and with one opening allowed and also two opening may be allowed and related valve position how operate and like that ... Displacement, deadweight All marpol annexes . Annex  6. Certificates in it. Solas chapter 9. Life boat safeties Extinguisher present near boiler, capacity Marginal line Free board Permeability Air draft Lifeboat safety Davit safety Pumping out regulation in annex 1 Motor & MEP: How easing gear work? Safety valve lift value not formula? Why c- for compact engine...MAN Boiler mounting Air compressor safety How 4 stoke cylinder lubrication take place. Fire pump priming arrangement One unit exhaust temp rising Labyrinth seal how it works t/c Reversing man b&w Tap and die How to measure height of purifier shaft How to check t