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Refrigeration Compressor Safeties

Oil differential cut out: This safety is again for compressor as it is the only machinery in the circuit having rotational parts which requires continuous lubrication. In the event of low supply or no supply of lube oil to the bearing, the differential pressure will increase and activates a trip signal to safeguard the bearing and crankshaft

The Oil Differential Pressure switch compares the measured lubricating oil pressure to the Suction (crankcase) pressure. Should the differential pressure fall below a pre-set minimum (about 1.2 bar) then the compressor will trip and require a manual reset to restart. 
A time delay is built into the circuit to allow sufficient time for the lubricating oil pressure to build up when starting before arming the circuit.

High pressure or HP cut out: high pressure cut out activates and trips the compressor when the discharge side pressure increases above the limit value. The HP cut out is not auto reset and has to be done manually. The reason behind it is to manually attend the fault which is leading to rise in pressure, else this situation can lead to overloading of compressor parts and may damage the same
The HP or High Pressure switch is fitted to the outlet of the compressor before the isolating valve. On over pressurization (dependent on the refrigerant, up to about 24bar bar for R22) the switch will trip the compressor and a manual reset is required before restart.

Low Pressure or LP cut off: This is a compressor safety which cut off the compressor in the event of pressure drop in the suction line. The pressure of the suction line is continuously sensed by the control unit and when it goes below the set value, which means the room is properly cooled, the LP cut out will auto trip the compressor. When the pressure rises, indicating there is flow of refrigerant in the line due to increase in room temperature, the LP switch will start the compressor. This normally takes the form of an LP cut out pressure switch with automatic reset on pressure rise. The cut out set point is say at about 1.4bar and the cut in pressure of around 2.8 bar. The electrical circuit is so arranged that even when the switch has reset, if no room solenoid valves are open the compressor will not start. This is to prevent the compressor cycling due to a leaky solenoid valve.

Relief valves: Relief valves are fitted in discharge side of compressor and will lift and safeguard the compressor in the event of over pressure. One relief valve is also fitted in the condenser refrigerant line to avoid damage to the condenser if there is high pressure in the discharge line.

Oil heater: Oil heater is provided for the compressor crank case oil and prevents compressor from getting excessively cold which may effect the lubrication of the parts.

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