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Maritime Zones

Territorial Seas:

  • Extends to 12 nautical miles from the baseline.
  • The sovereignty of a coastal state extends to the air over the territorial sea as well as its bed and subsoil.
  • Foreign flag buses have a right of innocent passage through it, right of innocent passage can be suspended if it is essential for the protection of the coastal state, its security or for weapon exercise.
  • Coastal state can exercise criminal jurisdiction in territorial seas if the consequences of crime extend to the coastal state if crime disturb the peace of the country or good order of the sea, if zero diction is necessary to suppress traffic of narcotic drugs or if the agent of flag state request the coastal state exercise your jurisdiction.
Internal Waters:
Internal water includes water on the landward side of the baseline of a Nation's territorial water, except in archipelagic states it includes waterway such as river and canal and sometimes water within the small base, in internal water the coastal state can exercise jurisdiction over all vessels.

Contiguous Zone:
Extends 12 nautical miles beyond the territorial sea limit, coastal state must exercise control necessary to prevent in fragment of its customs, fiscal immigration or sanitary laws and regulations within its territories, vessel carrying noxious or dangerous substance or waste be turned away on public health or environmental grounds.

Exclusive Economic Zone:
It extends to a maximum of 200 nauticals miles from the baseline, covering and managing the natural resource weather living or non-living of the water adjacent and of the sea bed and its subsoil, state has jurisdiction with regards to installation Marine scientific research and protection and preservation of the marine environment, all other states enjoying the freedom of navigation, laying submarine cables and pipelines.

Continental Shelf:
The outer limit of the continental shelf not exceed 350 nauticals miles from the baseline or shall not exceed 100 nautical miles from 2500 isobaths. The coastal state has exclusive rights for exploring and exploiting its natural resources in this area, the state also has the exclusive rights to authorise and regulation drilling on the self for all purpose.

High Seas:
It is the part of the sea which are not included in the exclusive economic zone in the territorial sea or the internal water of a coastal or archipelagic waters of an archipelagic state. High seas are open to all states for freedom of navigation, freedom of overflight, freedom of construction artificial island installation, freedom of fishing and freedom of scientific research. High sea are reserved for peaceful navigation through international water however regulations have been made to avoid prevention of slave trade, piracy, seizure of ships, illicit narcotics trafficking and unauthorised broadcasting.


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